DIAL(2)                                                   DIAL(2)

          Dial: accept, announce, dial, listen, netinfo, netmkaddr,
          reject - make network connections

          include "dial.m";
          dial := load Dial Dial->PATH;

          Connection: adt
              dfd:  ref FD;  # data file
              cfd:  ref FD;  # control file
              dir:  string;  # pathname of line directory

          announce:  fn(addr: string):        ref Connection;
          dial:      fn(addr, local: string): ref Connection;
          listen:    fn(c: ref Connection):       ref Connection;
          accept:    fn(c: ref Connection): ref Sys->FD;
          reject:    fn(c: ref Connection, why: string);

          netmkaddr: fn(addr, defnet, defsvc: string): string;

          Conninfo: adt
              dir:   string;   # connection directory
              root:  string;   # network mount point
              spec:  string;   # its binding spec
              lsys:  string;   # local host address
              lserv: string;   # local service
              rsys:  string;   # remote host address
              rserv: string;   # remote service
              laddr: string;   # local address in dial form
              raddr: string;   # remote address in dial form

          netinfo:   fn(c: ref Connection): ref Conninfo;

          Dial establishes network connections.  The description below
          uses the following definitions:

          addr     is a network address in one of the following forms:


          network  Any directory listed in /net (eg, tcp), or the

     Page 1                       Plan 9             (printed 4/14/24)

     DIAL(2)                                                   DIAL(2)

                   special token, net.  The special name net stands
                   for any network that connects the current host and
                   netaddr. A network name can be preceded by the full
                   path name of a directory of networks, using the
                   form /dir/network (eg, /net.alt/tcp).

          netaddr  A host name, a domain name, a network address, or a
                   meta-name of the form $attribute, which is replaced
                   by value from the corresponding attribute-value
                   pair in the connection server data base (see

          The functions dial and announce translate a given addr to an
          actual network address using the connection server cs(8). If
          a logical name addr corresponds to several network
          addresses, for instance if a destination machine has several
          interfaces, cs will return them all; dial or announce will
          try each in turn until one works.  In particular, if addr is
          net, cs will return addresses on all networks that are com-
          mon to source and destination.  The translation procedure
          accesses cs using its interface file cs, which is sought as
          follows: first, in an explicit directory /dir if one was
          given in network; second, in the standard directory /net;
          and finally in the directory /net.alt (dial only).  If the
          connection server cannot be found, the addr is used as-is.

          If a connection attempt is successful, the dir member of the
          resulting Connection will be the path name of a line
          directory that has files for accessing the connection.  One
          line directory exists for each possible connection.  The
          data file in the line directory is opened to make a connec-
          tion, and read and written to communicate with the destina-
          tion.  The ctl file in the line directory can be used to
          send commands to the line.  See ip(3) for messages that can
          be written to the ctl file.  The last close of both data and
          ctl file will close the connection.  The remote file in the
          line directory contains the address called; the file local
          contains the local address assigned.

          The function dial calls destination addr on a multiplexed
          network.  If the connection server returns several possible
          locations for addr, dial tries each in turn, until a connec-
          tion is made, or no address remains to be tried.  Dial
          returns a reference to a Connection value containing a
          string dir that names the conversation directory for the
          connection, a file descriptor dfd open for reading and writ-
          ing the data file in that directory, and a file descriptor
          cfd open for reading and writing the directory's ctl file.
          If local is non-empty, and the network allows the local
          address to be set, as is the case with UDP and TCP port num-
          bers, the local address will be set to local.

     Page 2                       Plan 9             (printed 4/14/24)

     DIAL(2)                                                   DIAL(2)

          Announce and listen are the complements of dial.  Announce
          establishes a network name to which incoming calls can be
          made.  In addr, netaddr gives the name or address of one of
          the local host's interfaces on which to listen for calls to
          the given service; it can be * to listen for calls on any
          interface on network. Announce returns a reference to a
          Connection value in which only the cfd descriptor is open,
          on the control file representing the announcement.  Listen
          takes as its only argument a reference to the Connection
          returned by a successful call to announce.  When a call is
          received, listen returns a reference to a new Connection
          value that refers to the conversation directory for the
          incoming call; only the cfd descriptor is open.  That call
          can be accepted or rejected.  Use accept to obtain a file
          descriptor for the data file for the conversation.  Use
          reject to reject the incoming call; some networks will also
          tell the caller the reason why.

          Netmkaddr makes addr into a full network address, suitable
          for dial or announce.  It adds the default network defnet
          (usually "net") and a default service defsvc to the given
          addr as required, including `!'  separators, and returns the

          Given a Connection, netinfo returns a reference to a
          Conninfo value that gives details about the connection and
          its network.

          Make a call and return an open file descriptor to use for

               callkremvax(): ref Sys->FD
                    c := dial->dial("tcp!kremvax!80", nil);
                    if(c == nil)
                         return nil;
                    return c.dfd;

          Call the local certificate signer:

               dialsigner(service: string): ref Sys->FD
                    c := dial->dial("net!$SIGNER!inflogin", nil);
                    if(c == nil)
                         return nil;
                    return c.dfd;

          Listen for incoming calls.

     Page 3                       Plan 9             (printed 4/14/24)

     DIAL(2)                                                   DIAL(2)

                    ac := dial->announce("tcp!*!9995");
                    if(ac == nil){
                         sys->print("can't announce: %r\n");
                         lc := dial->listen(ac);
                         if(lc == nil){
                              sys->print("listen: %r\n");
                         sys->print("incoming: %s\n", hd ctext(lc));
                         spawn client(lc);

               client(c: ref Connection)
                    dfd := dial->accept(c);
                    if(dfd == nil){
                         sys->print("%s: can't accept: %r\n", c.dir);
                    buf := array[Sys->ATOMICIO] of byte;
                    while((n := sys->read(dfd, buf, len buf)) > 0)
                         sys->write(dfd, buf, n);


          The integer valued functions return 0 on success and -1 on
          error; functions returning a reference return nil on error.
          In those cases the system error string is set.

     Page 4                       Plan 9             (printed 4/14/24)